Fod specialises in public policy and economic issues surrounding regulation and competition—in particular, those raised by the introduction of competition into previously monopoly supply industries, both utility industries and those that rely on networks (eg, many financial services companies and the airline industry), as well as other sectors being opened up to market and market-based mechanisms (eg, health in the UK). Of particular interest are the implications of vertical integration where the supplier operates in both monopoly and competitive markets. He is also a specialist in the area of consumer policy. He provided regulatory, economic and strategic advice across the whole output of Oftel during his nine years as policy adviser to all the Director Generals (including on the accounting separation of BT) and has advised the chief executive of the Healthcare Commission on regulatory reforms. He was also the Chairman's adviser on the Walker Review.